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Nov. 24, 2004


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Dr. Laura L. Runge
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LIT 4930.001
Appreciating Poetry


Fall 2004
Time: Monday and Wednesday
11:00am - 12:15 pm
Room: CPR 348


Class 27

Reading Assignment: See Handout

    Midnight Salvage (1999) and Fox (2001)
    "A Long Conversation" (also see endnote) and "Fox"

    Prose: Two interviews from Arts of the Possible: Essays and Conversations (2001)

    DUE: Group A: Post 14
    Sample ANTHOLOGY entry DUE
    STUDENT LED DISCUSSION: Joanna

POEM TO ANNOTATE: "Fox"

    Class Objectives:

  • To examine poetry and conversations on poetry from Rich’s most recently published books

  • Reflect on the ways in which the location of the poet becomes the material of the poetry and what that means

  • Discuss the continuity of themes and imagery in Rich’s oeuvre

  • Discuss the use of formal technique in Rich’s later poetry

    The prose pieces for this class are particularly interesting because the interviewer ask some questions that resonate with the questions we have raised in discussion of her poetry. Take the time to read the interviews, and pay particular attention to what Rich has to say about the specific poems from Midnight Salvage, about the role of poetry in the public sphere (and poetic language), and about her conscious artistry.



    Reading Notes and Discussion Questions

    “A Long Conversation”

    1.

    Comment on the form of the poem. Is this a “theatre of voices” and if so, in what sense? Rich comments in her interview with Rachel Spence, “Today, there’s a banalizing tendency to read all literature as autobiographical, to discount the real work of the imagination. I’ve been creating characters as the novelist or playwright might” (138).

    Who are the characters in this “long conversation”? In what sense are they having a conversation?

    With respect to her “figures of resistance” embodied in the poem, Rich says they are “many characters, both historical and invented, male and female, who I listen in on…. I’m not trying to iconize, but to lay an ear to what’s under the surface” (141). How do you understand this? What does it mean to iconize the figures/speakers poetry, and how does Rich manage – if she does – to avoid this. In what sense are we listening in?

    According to Rachel Spence, Rich’s poetry engages in a “vehement critique of capitalist North America.” To what extent do you find this to be true? How or where do you see this?

    What elements of Rich’s poetry – either formalistic or thematic – seem new here? What resonate with earlier poems?

    In her essay, "Blood, Bread, and Poetry," Rich describes a type of art that she admires: "This kind of art -- like the art of so many others uncanonized in the dominant culture -- is not produced as a commodity, but as part of a long conversation with the elders and with the future" (252). To what extent does this poem present such "A Long Conversation"? Who are the elders? To what future does it lean?

    2.

    Fox

    How is the fox imagined in this poem? What iconic or symbolic role does she play? How does this compare with the earlier manifestation of “Fox” in Rich’s poetry (5:30AM p. 33-4 and Sources p.101)?

    How does this poem take up history? She writes: “I needed history of fox briars of legend it was said she / had run through” (6-7). Why is “history of fox” – and note it is not “the fox” – important? She says of her poem “Readings of History” that it asks the question “Why does history matter? Why know it?” In what sense does this poem suggest that history matters? Why does the poet need it?

    How is gender or sexuality represented in the poem? In what sense is this part of the poetic process she describes on pp. 139-141: “What drives my poetry, always, is the need to see revealed what isn’t necessarily apparent or obvious – to uncover ‘lies, secrets, and silences.’ For me it is always a question of language as a probe into the unknown or unfamiliar. In the 1950s and early 1960s gender and sexuality were a field of lies, secrets and silences. I didn’t make poetry out of theories; I wrote from the need to make open and visible what was obscure and unspeakable.” How is the representation of gender and sexuality changed, if at all, from the earlier poems?

    Please listen to Rich’s reading of “Fox” available from Norton Poets Online website. Take into consideration Charles Altieri’s question of the music in Rich’s poetry on page 131: “When I hear you read, I think there are two separate registers of rhythm – one in the syntax as it unfolds and another, more abstract, dimly heard music of large patterns. Are you at all conscious of seeking such effects, and, if you are, can you tell us some of what you do to achieve them, or at least let them come through and not muffle them?” Read her answer, and decide what rhythms are at play in this poem. Also consider “A Long Conversation” in this light; it has more room to develop large patterns.


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