ENG 6009            Bibliography   for English Studies


Dr. Laura L. Runge    Office: CPR 301J/ 813-974-9496

Spring 2005    email: runge@chuma!.cas.usf.edu

LIB 620A                        Tuesday 3-5:50 PM


Class 1             1/18:  Early Modern Books/Microfilm Reading Assignment


Reading:            Greetham, Intro, Chs. 1, 2, 3 


DUE:                Post #1 – on microfilm assignment

                        References:  Manuscript and Microfilm locaters



Class Objectives:


·                    to introduce the technical and historical aspects of book making and bibliography

·                    to examine early books on microfilm

·                    to use manuscript and microfilm locators    





This week begins our introduction to textual criticism and bibliography and our practical use of microfilm resources.  The Greetham text is a readable introduction to a subfield of English studies that is “drowning in a sea of terms” (1).  The assigned chapters explain the enumerative and analytical bibliography, and a basic history in the making of books.   The microfilm assignment is designed to introduce you to references known as locators, and to the practice of using microfilm readers.  Also, it will show you what early modern print books look like.




Selected Manuscript and Microform Locators


Library of Congress National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections (1959-93) (REF—Annex/Z6620/.U5/N3).



Index to Additional Manuscripts … and Catalogue of … Additions to the Manuscripts in the British Museum.  (Note these two titles supplement the Index of Manuscripts in the British Library (10 volumes) of which, unfortunately, the only complete set in the State University System is at Florida State.) 

(REF—Annex/Z6621/B841/1967 and C37+)




Index of English Literary Manuscripts




Early English Books 1641-1700:  A Cumulative Index to Units 1-60 of the Microfilm Collection

(REF – Annex/Z/2001/.U5862/



Online English Short Title Catalogue:  Available to USF researchers through the Eureka gateway.  Access by clicking the USF library Website:  Databases; search by title under E or by subject matter under Literature. ESTC or Eureka link.  Once connected, on the righthand menu choose ESTC from “Select a database”.  Incorporates the Eighteenth-century Short Title Catalogue (not available in hard copy).  Look it up in Harner and online, and note its expansive coverage.  Explore the online database by searching for specific author or title.



English Literary Periodicals:  A Guide to the 1st Through the 22nd Years of the Microfilm Collection





Microfilm Assignment


Objective:  examine and print selected pages of a printed work published before 1800 from microfilm in our library.


Choose any work you like after browsing a bit in the references and on the microfilm reel(s).  The library owns the Early English Books microfilm series both 1475-1640 and 1641-1700 as well as the English Literary Periodicals.  You can learn more about the collections in the print catalogues listed above, or you can search for titles using the ESTC.  Be aware, however, that USF library does not have all ESTC titles available on microfilm. The titles in EEB 1641-1700 and ELP are individually catalogued in LUIS, but EEB 1475-1640 is currently accessible only by its index at REF/Z2002/.E4+.  (Indexes are kept in the microforms room as well, but the shelving system is not always precise there.)


Once you have determined a title and identified its location in a microfilm collection, reel and position number, bring your information to the microform room (USF Tampa Library, second-floor Periodicals Department – to your left as you enter Periodicals).


The microfilm collection is open-access, but the Periodical information desk staff will assist if requested.  Locate the particular reel you need, and take it to a microfilm (not fiche!) machine, preferably one that is equipped to copy.  You will need a vend card to operate the machine and to make copies.  If you are not experienced with microfilm readers, you may need help interpreting the instructions.  I would advise you to get some instruction from the staff on how to use the machines. 


Once you have the film threaded, you need to advance to the position number on the reel and adjust the picture for adequate viewing and copying.  This may involve enlarging, reorienting, lightening, etc.


Now for the assignment.  Examine your text, keeping in mind the information you have learned from Greetham.  Print out the title page and any significant imprint features to discuss in class alongside your post.  (These might include engravings, various typographical features, advertisements [see the back of books for lists of other books sold by the same bookseller, for instance], table of contents, letters to the reader, chapter headings, etc.) Try to answer some of the following factual questions. 


Save the printout for next week, when we will use it to practice descriptive bibliography.



How is the title page laid out?  What information is included? What is left out?  Speculate as to why.

What information is emphasized?  How?  What is the effect?

How might this differ in a twenty-first century edition of the work?

What is the format of the book (folio, quarto, octavo)?  What are the implications of this format?

What year is the work published?

Who is the author?  Is the author’s name mentioned?  How is the author identified, if it is at all?

What is the title of the work? What are some striking characteristics of the title (length, word choice, spelling, etc.)?

What type of work is it?  How is this announced in the formatting of the book (if at all)?

What are some other significant features of the imprint?  (Note some of the features of typography from chapter 6 – spacing of type face, use of particular spellings, contractions, capitals, etc.)




Notes and Discussion on Greetham, Introduction and Chapters 1-3.


As you read, I recommend that you create a glossary of terms for yourself.  It is important to become familiar with some of this specialized vocabulary in order to understand the information that follows.  Please present any queries to the class either on the discussion board or as part of your discussion in class. 


Some terms to become familiar with:





Analytical bibliography

Historical bibliography

Descriptive bibliography

Ideal copy

Textual bibliography

Textual criticism



Textual analysis

Textual or scholarly editing

Critical editing

New Scholarship

Social textual criticism

Revisionism:  versioning, genetic editing, textology or hypertext editing


Historical linguistics

Structuralist linguistics

Historical criticism




What other terms need defining or clarification?


What two basic principles does Greetham use in designing his introduction to this large and sometimes unruly field?  (p. 2)


Read the list of objectives for Greetham's book, listed on pp. 10-11.  How might these things aid your work as a graduate student of English studies?  What areas are of particular interest?



Chapter 1 Finding the Text: Enumerative and Systematic Bibliography (13-46)


Based on the history of libraries offered here, what might be the relationship between enumerative bibliographies and canons? (14+)


How are enumerative bibliographies systematically organized, according to Fredson Bowers?  (19)  This will become significant in evaluating references this semester.


What is the major problem in the enumerative bibliographies evolving through history and how do the practices of descriptive and analytical bibliography address this? (20-22)


The second part of this chapter lists many useful reference works and their role in textual scholarship (note the valuable Selective Bibliography at the back of the book).  Given that the objective of this course is to provide a map to find the information you will need for graduate work in English Studies, you should pay careful attention to this chapter, particularly if you are unfamiliar with these resources. 


Where to find them?  How to use them?  These questions will be answered in the second part of this class.  Here is the first important bit of information for your graduate work in English Studies – knowing what the bibliographies and resources for primary and secondary works are! (24-45).


Note that Greetham mentions the texts we are using for this class on page 25.  He also provides alternatives for your information.  Note Greetham's criticism of Harner's first edition (we are using the new 4th edition) (p. 25).  Does this apply to the edition we are using?


Compare the organization and major reference works listed here with our syllabus.  What interests you the most?  What is missing that you might like to know about?


Chapter 2 Making the Text: Bibliography of Manuscript Books (47-75)


Note the precarious life of an ancient text surviving to be present in our classrooms today.  What are some of the obstacles that might endanger a text's survival?  What are some of the factors in the authority of the text as it is transmitted through time?


What are some of the conventions of the scribal production of texts that differ from printed books?  What effect does this have on the text itself?


What are some of the factors in the material production of manuscript books, and how might these affect the text (materials, costs, copying, format and binding, storage, etc.)?


Discuss the palimpsest.  What is it?  Why does it exist?  What are the implications for the texts involved?  What relation does this hold to our concept of intertextuality?  (53-54)


What are the implications of the differences between punctuation used in manuscripts and the printed books with which we are familiar?


Chapter 3 Making the Text:  Bibliography of Printed Books


How is the printed text to be distinguished from manuscript and what are some of the related issues dealt with by the earliest printers?


How would you describe the relationship among the printers, publishers and booksellers of the early printed book? (86-88)


Why does censorship become important with the advent of printing?


When did printing come to England and who was largely responsible? (105-107)


In relation to seventeenth- and eighteenth-century practices of printing, what do the terms "subscription" and "conger" mean? (111)


What happens when printers stop exercising control over the texts they produce?  (112)


Try to comprehend the process of imposition described in the pages on printing technique – the placement of type and the arrangement of pages will have significance for the presentation of text in descriptive bibliography.  I will be asking you to look for some signs of the imposition process when you look at microfilm copies of some early books next week.


What questions do you have about the process of printing?  What are the implications for certain choices made in the production of a book – ie. the size, the format, the binding, the font?


Return to course syllabus.